1036 words - 4 pages
Introduction and Summary
Many political studies on civil war have focused on the role that institutions play in ethnically divided societies. While 'constitutional engineers' have claimed that certain rules and institutional arrangements, like proportional representation or decentralization, help divided societies to maintain peace (Lijphart 1977, 1999; Fearon/Laitin 2003; Reynal-Querol 2005), political sociologists have argued that they only reflect the cleavage lines within such societies (Lipset/Rokkan 1967; Collier/Hoeffler 2004). However, most of the researchers' results are neither robust nor replicable across studies (Hegre/Sambanis 2006).
Examining this contradictory role of...
1606 words - 6 pages
Society's Major Institutions.There are five basic institutional areas of a society. The major institutions consist of family, education, economics, religion, and political sectors. These will essentially affect everyone's life by shaping their thoughts and behaviors. Each of these institutions serves its purpose to fulfill society's fundamental needs and specific goals for the overall society. All must coincide or work harmoniously to make a society.The institution of family is the most important and is based on the teachings of values, norms, statuses, and roles. The family is designed to guide sexual activity, socialization, and social relations within a sexual union...
561 words - 2 pages
Mediterranean political institutions in places such as Greek and Roman, or otherwise known as Greco-Roman, empires changed greatly from the beginning to the end of the classical period. City-states were a part of Greece while Rome was a republic, but people in both Greece and Rome actively participated in politics. Both Greece and Rome stressed aristocratic rule. Later on, Rome added emphasis on law, and many people that werent from Rome were granted Roman citizenship. Importance was placed on military forces. It wasnt until the fall of Rome that the greatness of Mediterranean political institutions collapsed.
Greece had a variety of political institutions. Some places were...
1157 words - 5 pages
The first successful British colony in North America, Jamestown was created in 1607. Though at first the American colonists were heavily dependent on Britain for their financial and governmental needs, they soon developed their own cultural and societal ideals. These ideals were not deterred until after the French and Indian War, when the English recognized the need for more royal authority in the colonies. The gradual weakening of British control over the colonies until...
2460 words - 10 pages
The European Renaissance was a period of transition from what was known as the medieval world to what could be called the modern world. Many significant advances in knowledge and thought that greatly affected the framework of society and culture of the modern world marked this time period. Our current cultural, social, and political institutions here in the United States also have ties to the influences of this time period.Areas of Social ChangeHumanism and EducationThe Renaissance is known for the development and proliferation of the philosophy of humanism. Humanism is essentially based on placing emphasis...
703 words - 3 pages
The American Revolution began in earnest at Lexington on April 19, 1775, and was formalized with the passing of the motion for independence by the Second Continental Congress on July 2, 1776. We, Americans of the 21st century tend to take our freedom and constitutional protections for granted, but they were hard won, and the result which was achieved was never a foregone conclusion. Surely the United States would eventually have broken out of the British Empire, but the path might well have been similar to...
591 words - 2 pages
Today the United States of America is one of the most economically developed, politically stable and a socially mobile countries in the world. Back in the early 1600s, when colonies were just established in America, people were busy settling their lives and developing new institutions in order to bring their lives to higher standards, such as giving opportunities for people to move up the social ladder, laying a foundation for democracy, and establishing the cash crop system and extensively trading with the rest of the world. To a great extent, the foundation for the United States, which ultimately made...
1025 words - 4 pages
Since early history, religious institutions that encompass gods, worship centers, and oracles have helped shaped political power in many communities because of the worldview and societal hierarchies they imply. In Chinua Achebe’s book, Things Fall Apart, this is exemplified through its story of the Ibo African village and its encounter with European Christian missionaries. Moreover, Achebe demonstrates how Ibo religious institutions structure Ibo political power through their respected hierarchies that are established by their abilities to affirm their authority, uphold and declare Ibo law, and punish community members who go against their jurisdiction.
The legitimization of political...
846 words - 3 pages
"Globalization, both as an ideology and process, has become the dominant political, economical and cultural force in the 21st century." Quote from "Globalism: The New Market Ideology" by Manfred D.Steger, Page 6 One of the biggest questions currently asked in international politics seeks to determine the role that globalization plays in world and its effect on state relationships. While there is debate about the extent to which globalization is occurring and influencing international relations, there is no doubt that countries are becoming more integrated. Simple integration, or "exchange across borders," however, is not the same as globalization, which involves the "breaking down...
1447 words - 6 pages
This essay is concerned with the impact of institutions of the state on the policy process. Key influences in the Neo-Institutional approach to the study of policy have been the importation of ideas from organisational sociology and a growing recognition of the need to employ historical analysis to trace the evolution of policy over time. I intend, in this essay to examine Neo-Institutionalist theory, and discuss it's relevance with reference to the institutions of Parliament and the Cabinet. Two points though that should be noted are that institutions are seen as central to one of the main policy theories, and that they are seen as 'makers and shapers' of policy.Attempting though,...
1289 words - 5 pages
I read an article written by Andrew Romano, for News Week, discussing in detail the ignorance of the American public in political affairs. This article was largely inspired by a poll News Week conducted on the public, testing them with standardized questions given in the citizenship exam. After reading that a large amount of Americans failed to pass this exam I decided to take it myself. Once I completed the exam, which I failed miserably, I remembered a comment Romano made in his article about the populace being uneducated or non-English speaking immigrants. Being a college student this comment is kind of hard to swallow especially after doing so badly on the exam myself. I would not...
1851 words - 7 pages
Is it the change in political culture that generates the greatest challenge for democracy in the United Kingdom? That was the question I was asked to answer for this paper and through my research, I have concluded that the political culture provides the greatest challenge for the democracy because it is always changing on the basis of imperialist ideals, the problems with the class system and the changes that Tony Blair made.
Social cleavages are divisions that can come from religion, ethnic diversity, race, and economic class that in turn interact with the political system. It is measured by how many people are getting along with each other, how people...
2375 words - 10 pages
Political corruption is a serious problem limiting development in emerging economies. Many scholars have identified corruption as the new enemy of democratization, blaming it for limiting political and socio-economic development of most developing nations (Bardhan P.,1997; Seligson M., 2002, Canache D. and Allison M., 2005). Although no one can really measure “corruption” due to its discrete nature and the different discourses defining it, citizen’s perception of corruption can give us an idea of its direction. Manny current approaches to the study of corruption take into consideration the importance of corruption perception indexes (Johnston 2005, Acemoglu D. and Robinson J. 2001, Canache...
2234 words - 9 pages
The proposed analysis: taxation and stability policy with a sample of 60 countries around the world during the period 2002 to 2008, helping to make distinctions between the political instability experienced but maintained high taxation, and those states with political stability but with a low taxation. The few variables that are used in the model, and its reduction to a two-way relationship is one of its merits, when compared with other models used in similar studies. The model also contains a simple explanation for a complex problem: measuring the taxing power and its relations with political stability, and vice versa, to measure political stability based on taxation. The model results are...
1428 words - 6 pages
In the film, How to Train Your Dragon, the Vikings are at war, fighting for their institutions and peace from their existential threat, the Dragons. The Vikings are in a society in which the institutions reflect their historical struggles and have shaped them to be close-minded to any peaceful interaction with Dragons. Thus, in How to Train Your Dragon, the institutions that the Vikings had, represented what Rousseau saw as being a society with a self-interest social contract of the majority. This causes estrangement between their civilization and the Dragons. The Vikings eventually form a new social contract, in which the Vikings and Dragons represent Rousseau's general will of equality...
629 words - 3 pages
So what if the System is Broke?The title for my remarks today is "So what if the System. is Broke?" The title wasdevised under duress--I was given about three minutes during lunch with RichJohnston and Pat Rowantree and a Member of the Board. My title is perhapstoo alarmist, as a result.I therefore feel an obligation to start by offering you some reassurance: my subject is not BC's or Canada's economy. My contention is probably just about as alarming, however, for I intend to talk about our political system.Claims that there is something wrong with our political system are not new, of...
1666 words - 7 pages
When a country strikes oil, or some other valuable natural resource, they may take it as a blessing; however, this discovery is often very destructive. Recent studies in social sciences suggest that developing countries with resource wealth tend to have political crises. This paradox is called the resource curse- the political counterpart of the infamous Dutch disease (Lam et al., 2002)*. In this paper I will argue how this phenomenon not only impedes the development of liberal democracies in non-democratic regimes, but also how it actively destroys liberal values in developing democracies. In specific, I will discuss how political instability, socio-economic disparities and...
2836 words - 11 pages
The Difference Between France and Britain
Scholars from Aristotle onward have proposed that the characteristics
of society directly affect the nature of government. If we apply this
to Britain and France, we shall see that this proposal is definitely
true. The difference between the British and French cultures becomes
obvious when an assessment looks at their political systems, and each
of the 6 structures, and the full range of the political culture's
influence on each structure is understood.
Political socialization is the learning of your political culture; it
is the process of acquiring the values and beliefs of the political
2393 words - 10 pages
This growing influence of the mass media and changes in communication has led to the subordination of the power of other influential institutions in society. “This process is referred to as “mediatisation” and as a result of mediatisation institutions in society and society as a whole is shaped by and ultimately dependent on the mass media” (Mazzoleni and Schulz 1999: 247 – 261). This ultimately means a “media logic” has formed. In relation to politics the theory of mediatisation is extremely relevant as it is argued that the media shapes political campaigns and political figures. However others argue that the theory of mediatisation and the media has no influence over politics nor does it...
651 words - 3 pages
Influence of Colonialism in Africa and Latin America
The institutions of imperialism and colonialism have shaped the face of growth and development of the social, political, and economic forces in Africa. As outlined by Boahen, the extent of the “influence” that these institutions asserted varies and has both positive and negative aspects. Several of these aspects that exists in Africa are mirrored in Latin America, while others differ quite extremely.
An important observation that can be made immediately, is that each positive has a related negative. It is not as if the positive aspects stem from one source while the negatives stem from another, but rather it is as if they both...
1112 words - 4 pages
This essay will look at the role of the institution of the National Public Protector (NPP) as enshrined in Chapter 9 of the South African Constitution with respect to constitutional democracy. Additionally, an analysis of the powers, duties and it’s (the NPP) institutional relationship with the other chapter 9 institutions.
The protection for constitutional democracy is borne out of answering a question dating back to the Roman Empire: “Quis custodiet ipsos custodies?” which translated means “who protects the rights and interests of the individual against possible abuse by persons in public office?” During party negotiations for a new constitution it was recognized that parties would have to...
2009 words - 8 pages
Why Nations Fail by Daron Acemogly and James Robinson stipulates its own answers for questions asked by most who study or engage with development, war and poverty. The central question is – why are some nations strong and others weak? Why are some trapped in perpetual poverty and others thriving in excess? Why do some nations fail while others do not? The authors argue, very basically, that it is “institutions, more precisely the political institutions that determine economic institutions” (Boldrin, Levine and Modica) that determine whether a nation will succeed or fall apart. They present a variety of important examples and make statements meant to force their audience to really think...
2899 words - 12 pages
Autonomy, Education, and Societal Legitimacy
I argue that autonomy should be interpreted as an educational concept, dependent on many educative institutions, including but not limited to government. This interpretation will improve the understanding of autonomy in relation to questions about institutional and societal legitimate authority. I aim to make plausible three connected ideas. (1) Respecting individual autonomy, properly understood, is consistent with an interest in institutions in social and political philosophy. Such interest, however, does require a broadening of questions about institutional and societal legitimacy. (2) Individual autonomy can and should be re-conceived as a...
1048 words - 4 pages
Consensus vs. Urbanization
The process of modernization contains many elements, which work together in many ways. The two elements that I will be discussing are consensus and urbanization. Consensus is when a group or groups of people come to an agreement with each other. Urbanization is the development of cities.
Consensus makes the social forces stronger. Social forces strengthen with higher levels of consensus because more people are agreeing with each other. The social forces can now begin to agree on the things they want and most likely get the things they want. More people can agree on the changes that need to be made. Urbanization affects the social forces by bringing...
1467 words - 6 pages
In his book Politicians and Poachers, Charles Gibson analyzes the origins and effects of governmental “institutions” on Zambian wildlife policy. Keeping in mind his definition of what an institution is- it’s origins, what it does, and what it represents- one can apply his analysis to the nature of tourism. When so much of the tourist industry relies on what is seen as “authentic” and how it is determined, it is important to focus on how various institutions shape Western and local thought.
Charles Gibson puts forth a definition of “institutions”, on which he bases his argument about Zambian wildlife policy. He says that, essentially, they are the result of “voluntary exchanges between...
841 words - 3 pages
How has media influenced public perception of political figures, issues, and institutions? Through agenda setting and framing, media has the power to set the agenda for political discussion by providing public attention to political figures, issues, and institutions. In addition, the media can frame political agendas by influencing public perception and interpretation. (Ginsberg, Lowi & Weir, 1999)
Agenda Setting and Framing
Political Figures and Candidates
In campaigning, media coverage plays a large role for candidates. They use the media to make their name heard and image seen. “Nearly everything a candidate does is geared toward the media, especially television” (Stuckey, 1999, p....
1626 words - 7 pages
For understanding entirely the emergence of modern European states in the fifteen and sixteen centuries it is central to study the trend of representative assemblies to disappear at the same time that centralized monarchies gained power. There is extensive literature on parliament and political institutions of the period, explaining the decline but also the role they played in the government. This paper describes the issues that determined the development of these institutions using on secondary sources. For the actual answer for the causes of the decline of the parliament is more complex than a swipe of power, the circumstances of the rise of the modern state will have to be examined. This...
2309 words - 9 pages
The concept of Political Parties has been an evolving concept and framework that emerged after the American formation of political parties in the 18th century. Political scientist Edmond Burke, stated in 1770 that political parties are “ a body of men united for promoting, by joint endeavors, some principles which they all agree.” Professor Feigenbaum broadened upon this definition by stating that political parties are institutions that represent diverse yet compatible interests . Both of these definitions led to recognition that political parties develop in a nation parallel to the development of the society and show the nations cleavages and triumphs. Thus, the recent changes to the...
864 words - 3 pages
Political theory in it's simplest form is man's belief on not only how politics work, but how they should work. Philosophers throughout history have concerned themselves with political institutions, laws, and customs; how they are constructed and upheld within a particular society. They've also touched on the various goals and obligations of political action. It is essentially the political philosopher's responsibility to differentiate between what "is" and what "ought to be", within existing political institutions and potentially more just and benevolent institutions. This distinction of what...
1197 words - 5 pages
Political parties have been in a declining state in recent political evolution and has provoked numerous discussions/arguments whether the political parties have been indeed in such a state or whether they have been simply restructuring their organisational and/or ideological principles to withstand certain challenges. Several theories were introduced/developed in the recent years so as to distinguish the “ideal” behavioural type of political party development. The most renowned “ideal” party types are the cadre party type, the mass party type (Duverger, 1954) and the catch-all party type (Kirchheimer, 1966). Nevertheless, a recent theory regarding party types proposed initially by Richard...
1059 words - 4 pages
Most insights of sociological markets have been framed as reactions to the neoclassical economic views of functioning markets. Many sociologists prefer the idea that all forms of economic interaction were centered in social relations, many sociologists have stated that embedded markets produce effects of economics. Network theory argues that an embedded market shifts firms' motivations away from the narrow pursuit of immediate economic gains toward the enrichment of relationships through trust and reciprocity. These Social networks consist with strong ties and
703 words - 3 pages
Ma. Glenda Rae S. Villas 1POL2July 17, 2021 Prof. Ronald CastilloBehaviouralism simplified"At some point theories of political process needed to be linked to practical political activity." This is what Charles E. Merriam believed. Thus, Behaviouralism was introduced. His work was a source of argument which lead to different interpretations for this kind of approach.Behaviouralism as we know it is an approach used in Political Science. Its objective was to...
1805 words - 7 pages
To be able to evaluate Functionalism, Marxism and Interactionism we
must first look at the strengths and weaknesses in each. There are
many variations and interpretations of each of these theories,
therefore for the sake of simplicity only the key ideals will be
Functionalism looks at society as an organized structure of
inter-related institutions; and the various ways these institutions
interact together within a social structure. Examples of these
'institutions' are the family, work, education and religion. The
Functionalist perspective is best understood using an organismic
analogy: 'Societies are comparable...
2234 words - 9 pages
When examining studies of economic performance, often trade and political influence is a key explanatory factor. If trade makes countries wealthy, then it is important to examine the roots of how goods for trade were produced from natural resources. Fernand Braudel brought the geographical survey as a methodological development in his acclaimed work, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II. Essentially, a historian will begin a study by examining the geographical nature of the examples in order to gauge the resources available for economic development, or ensure natural resources play a key role in the understanding of how some countries were able to outperform...
1052 words - 4 pages
Why Nations Fail takes an in depth look into why some countries flourish and become rich powerful nations while other countries are left in or reduced to poverty. Throughout this book review I will discuss major arguments and theories used by the authors and how they directly impact international development, keeping in mind that nations are only as strong as their political and economical systems.
Extractive institutions are used throughout this book to explain that the upper class extracts resources and goods from the lower class. They don’t allow growth or competition, but rather they just exploit the rest of society into doing their labour. It’s used to please a few,...
902 words - 4 pages
Globalization is the accelerated flow of people, ideas and thoughts, and the increasing permeability of state borders. This porousness of borders has generated an increased need for security, thus giving governmental institutions more power. The politics of power has for millennia been shrouded in a mysterious haze, inaccessible to the common citizen and held only by the very elite. Wikileaks has tried to resist this opacity and control. Their approach to causing popular social resistance against institutional power, however, has proved to be somewhat weak. To successfully initiate and maintain this struggle, insurrectionary groups must do so with explicit consent and consultation of the...
862 words - 3 pages
Edmund Burke was a political philosopher and a member of British Parliament who is generally considered to be the founder of modern conservatism. His politics are a fusion of other political theorists, and thus aren't particularly cohesive or systematic. However, Burke is an important figure in the history of political thought and he was known for his ability as an orator and statesman.
Burke saw society as if it was an evolving organism. He felt that, like a body, all aspects of a society must be functioning properly in order for society as a whole to remain healthy. Also like a body, he saw society as always attempting a homeostasis. He claimed that there was a delicate balance...
3608 words - 14 pages
Among the many political and social changes that took place ensuing World War II the colonial states declared their independence. As Samuel Huntington describes in "Political Order in Changing Societies" these communities faced many hardships and are still undergoing the difficulties associated with gaining independence. Tension becomes increasingly severe with the topics of ethnicity, language, region, tradition, and religion. Turmoil regarding these issues ultimately undermines...
1118 words - 4 pages
Bureacracy in Japan Ever since its establishment in 1955, the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) has maintained its one-party rule, and it continues to hold the highest executive power, being the prime ministership, and the cabinet. The LDP's one party rule has shaped the Japanese political economy by creating very close ties between the political, bureaucratic, and industrial/business structure. This has been done through the auspices of institutions such as Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF),
1421 words - 6 pages
THE PRIMACY OF CULTURE
Democracy’s Future –
Francis Fukuyama argues that for any new ideology or political trend to emerge that rival those of liberal democracy, it requires the precursor of developments at the level of civic society and culture. Accordingly, he sees the only civic society, and culture that seems poised to do so is Asia. Fukuyama bases his judgment on the claim that for the consolidation of democracy, there must exist four levels of change: On the first level is Ideology, followed by Institutions, then Civil Society, and finally, Culture.
At the level of ideological change, believes about the merits and demerits of democracy and its...
945 words - 4 pages
In the eighteenth century, Muscovy was transformed into a partially westernized and secularized Russian state as a result of the rapid and aggressively implemented reforms of Peter the Great (1694-1725). Yet Peter I’s aspirations to bring Europe into Russia became problematic at the end of his reign, when his efforts eventually culminated in an absolutist autocracy and an entrenchment of serfdom into Russian life. Paradoxically, it was precisely these two institutions that were beginning to be criticized and indeed threatened by developments in Europe towards the outset of the eighteenth century. As the eighteenth century progressed,...
2960 words - 12 pages
It has been said that democracy is the worst form of government except all the others that have been tried.On the surface of the argument, democracy appears to be the evolutionary step above ethnic identity; the existence of a democratic setup (a not-so-unspoken requirement for acceptance within the international community of states) automatically negates any ethnic allegiances and attempts to replace them with a nationalistic identity. However, in countries where democracy is imposed from above (rather than evolving from within) (most colonial states, especially third world nations), democratic and ethnic values are in direct conflict. This paper focuses on their dichotomy and...
1341 words - 5 pages
Lesson Learned: How Corporate America Infringes on Academic Freedom
Never before in our history have private and public bodies been so knotted together. In the past, it was normal to see political in-fighting and ideological struggles between public institutions, particularly government and higher education. In many ways, this is what kept our nation steady, never moving too far to the right nor the left. There are special times in our history when this hasn’t rang true; the era of McCarthyism, and the turbulent sixties are two that come to mind, but the nation and the public institutions which have provided it with guidance have always managed to find their place again and serve...
2332 words - 9 pages
The Differences Between the UK and US Constitutions
The question invites an analysis of how the differences between the UK
and the US constitutions establish the political systems in both
countries, and further whether there is distinction between the
political systems. Initially I will define what a constitution and a
political system are. Subsequently in the main body of the text I
shall analyse the differences between the constitutions, and how they
influence each separate political system. Loosely defined, a
constitution creates institutions and should state any definite power,
indicates the relationship between different state institutions, and
1161 words - 5 pages
Anarchy is seen as one end of the spectrum whose other end is marked by the presence of a legitimate and competent government. International politics is described as being spotted with pieces of government and bound with elements of community. Traditionally, international-political systems are thought of as being more or less anarchic.
Anarchy is taken to mean not just the absence of government but also the presence of disorder and chaos. Although far from peaceful, international politics falls short of unrelieved chaos, and while not formally organized, it is not entirely without institutions and orderly procedures.
Although it is misleading to label modern international...
1289 words - 5 pages
It is evident that higher education in the United States has gone through a tremendous transformation since its origins in the mid 1600’s. From schools whose only function was the training of ministers to the contemporary university of free and open access, both society and culture have had tremendous effects on the evolution of higher education in America. This paper will explore those transformations as related by the themes woven through the ten generations identified by. It will also offer evidence to support the identified theme of each generation.
The first generation of higher education in America saw the development of colleges as adjuncts or outgrowths of...
2137 words - 9 pages
Is British politics undergoing a process of Europeanisation?Almost every aspect of UK politics and policy-making is affected by the EU in some manner. I shall examine the concept of Europeanisation and the different definitions that academics have attributed to this phrase. My discussions will then focus on areas of UK politics that have been significantly impacted by the EU such as policy-making, the judicial system and devolution and those which have been subjected to it's influences to a lesser extent.'Europeanisation' definedIt has been argued by Buller...
1351 words - 5 pages
Caught in an Informal Battle of the SexesThe influence informal institutions have to encourage a minorities to voluntarily participate in potentially harmful activities is a phenomenon that political scientists have been diligently analyzing over past last decade. Observing informal institution can help explain a wide array of events, including personal networks, corruption, civil society but what we will be examining today is informal institutions effects on tradition and culture. Throughout history, various social groups have been subjected to discrimination and undesirable physical and emotional oppression. Even so, these marginalized groups are sometimes found...
1111 words - 4 pages
Repression by the South African government during the apartheid era, has hurt the ability for civil society groups to form. Instead of channeling grievances through civil society organizations that act as a “safety valve” for discontent in a more peaceful way, most South Africans who want to get their voices heard end up using violence as a tool in order to bring political gain.1 The use of violence as a component of South Africa's political culture was originated during the 1980s anti-apartheid struggle, where the ANC and other underground anti-apartheid groups would use violent and militaristic actions, language, and ideas to get their voices heard as part of social mobilization. Even...
1555 words - 6 pages
The question of the proper role of religion and of religiously based moral convictions within American public life has been hotly debated during the past fifteen years. The rise of the Moral Majority immediately prior to the first Reagan presidential campaign and the presidential candidacies of ordained ministers Pat Robertson and Jesse Jackson directed the media spotlight to the issue of religion and politics. These years have been a time of aggressive Christian politics, as evangelicals entered the...